The climate varies from temperate continental to Mediterranean in the southernmost parts.
The region includes the mountains, or parts of, Rila (highest point on the Balkan Peninsula – Musala summit, 2925 m), Pirin, Ograzhden, Vlahinska, Rodopi, and Belasitsa. There are two major rivers – Struma and Mesta, with population concentrations along their valleys. The beautiful and preserved environment is widely considered an important resource. A number of national parks and protected territories care for the biodiversity.
Timber, mineral springs, coal, construction materials- marble, granite.
Arable land – 38.8 %. Forested land – 52 %.